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Various Dangerous Effects of Diabetes on the Body

Diabetes is a group of diseases that affect the body's ability to produce and use insulin, a hormone that helps your body convert glucose into energy. Diabetes can be effectively treated, but has the potential to have complications including heart disease, and kidney damage.

Komplikasi Diabetes Pada Kaki Anda

Endocrine, excretory and digestive systems

Your pancreas produces and secretes insulin to help make energy from sugar. If the pancreas produces less insulin or no insulin production, or if your body can't use it, other hormones will convert fat into energy. This can create high levels of toxic chemicals, including body acids and ketones, which can lead to a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. This is a serious complication of diabetes. Symptoms include extreme thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue.

Your breath can smell sweet, it is caused by the level of ketone released by the body in the blood. High blood sugar levels and excess ketone in the urine can confirm diabetic ketoacidosis. Untreated conditions can lead to loss of consciousness or even death.

Diabetes can damage your kidneys, affecting its ability to capture useless products in the blood. The amount of increased protein in your urine (micro albuminuria) may be a sign that your kidney is not functioning properly. Kidney disease associated with diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. This condition does not show symptoms until entering the next stage. A person with diabetes must be examined for nephropathy to avoid irreversible kidney damage and kidney failure.

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) occurs in type 2 diabetes. This involves very high blood glucose levels but without ketones. Symptoms also include dehydration and loss of consciousness. Usually occurs in people with undiagnosed diabetes or those who cannot control their diabetes. It can also be caused by a heart attack, stroke or infection.

High blood sugar levels can make it difficult for your stomach to completely empty (gastroparesis). In the end, the delay caused blood glucose levels to rise. Diabetes is the main cause of gastroparesis. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, bloating, and heartburn.

Circulation system

High blood glucose levels can contribute to the formation of fat deposits in the walls of blood vessels. Over time, this can limit blood flow and increase the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).

Lack of blood flow can affect your hands and feet. Poor circulation can cause pain in the calf while you are walking (intermittent claudication). Diabetics are very susceptible to foot problems because there is a narrowing of blood vessels in the legs. Your feet will feel cold, and you may not feel warm due to lack of sensation.

A condition called diabetic neuropathy causes a decrease in extremity sensations, which can prevent you from being aware of an injury or infection. Diabetes increases your risk of infection or foot ulcer. Poor blood flow and nerve damage increase the chance of an amputation of the foot. If you have diabetes, it is very important to take care of your feet and check them often.

Diabetes increases your risk of developing high blood pressure, and puts a strain on the heart. According to the National Diabetes Information Agency, diabetics have twice the risk of heart disease or stroke compared to people without diabetes. Monitoring and controlling your blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol can reduce these risks. Similarly, good diet and exercise.

Diabetes and cigarettes are bad combinations, increasing the risk of cardiovascular problems and limited blood flow.

System integral

Diabetes can affect your skin. Lack of moisture can cause your feet to dry and crack. It is very important to dry your feet after bathing or swimming. You can use petroleum jelly or softening cream, but be careful: the cream or oil left between your toes can be very moist which can cause infection.

High pressures under your feet can cause calluses. If you don't treat it, you can become infected or become an ulcer. If you have an ulcer, see your doctor immediately to reduce your risk of losing your leg.

You may also be more susceptible to boils, infections of the hair follicles (folliculitis), wounds, and nail infections. Diabetics have a high risk of bacterial infection, including Staph (Staphylococcus), compared to the general population.

Warm and moist folds on the skin are susceptible to fungal or yeast infections. You are most likely to get this type of infection between your fingers and toes, groin, armpits, or in the corners of your mouth. Symptoms include redness, blisters, and itching.

A condition called diabetic dermopathy can cause brown spots on the skin. There is no reason to worry and no treatment is needed. Xanthomatosis causes a hard yellow lump with a red circle. Digital sclerosis causes thick skin, most often on the hands or feet. Both of these skin conditions are a sign of uncontrolled diabetes. This will disappear when your blood sugar is controlled.

Central nerve system

Diabetes causes nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy), which can affect your perception of heat, cold, and pain, making you more susceptible to injury. This also tends to make you ignore injuries, especially if they occur in difficult to see places, such as between your toes, heels, or under your feet.

Swelling, leaking of blood vessels in the eye (diabetic retinopathy) can damage your vision and even cause blindness. Symptoms include floaters or spots in your area of vision. Diabetics tend to get cataract earlier than others. They are also more likely to develop glaucoma. Symptoms of eye problems can be mild at first, so it's important to see your ophthalmologist regularly.

Reproduction system

Pregnancy hormones can cause gestational diabetes. This also increases the risk of high blood pressure (preeclampsia or eclampsia). In many cases, gestational diabetes is easily controlled, and sugar levels will return to normal after the baby is born. Symptoms are the same in other types of diabetes, but may also include repeated infections that affect bladder.

Women with gestational diabetes may have babies with a higher birth weight, making labor more complicated. Women with gestational diabetes should be monitored, because it has an increased risk of developing diabetes within ten years.